Real-Life Approach Through Projects
- Гладыш Тамара Ивановна, учитель английского языка
Принцип реальности на уроках помогает учащимся
осознать необходимость изучения иностранного
языка, возможность его практического применения,
что в свою очередь стимулирует их учебную
деятельность, способствует повышению качества
Использование метода проектов в учебной деятельности тесно связано с принципом реальности и, на мой взгляд, абсолютно обосновано. Необходимо отметить, что метод проектов порой предполагает максимальную активизацию усилий не только от учащихся, но и от учителя, а, может быть, в первую очередь от учителя, так как его роль в осуществлении проекта и доведении его до конечного осязаемого результата неимоверно велика по своей значимости.
Как обеспечить условия для раскрытия потенциальных возможностей учащихся в реализации знаний, которые они получили в результате изучения предмета "иностранный язык"?
Как помочь им осознать, что учебный труд небесполезен, что он может быть воплощен в ре-альный продукт, важный и необходимый?
Как найти разумные компромиссы, которые позволили бы решать проблемы максимально продуктивно в условиях урочной системы?
Как сделать так, чтобы в процессе работы над проектом у детей появилась осознанная потребность самостоятельно добывать дополнительную информацию, осмысливать ее критически, подвергать анализу, аргументировать, обобщать и выбирать именно ту, которая нужна для выполнения поставленной задачи?
Как приобщить учащихся к исследовательской деятельности, которая поможет выйти на тот или иной практический результат?
Все эти и многие другие вопросы приходится ставить перед собой, прежде чем начинать ра-боту над проектом.
From Ideas to Involvement
Наша идея родилась в процессе изучения темы
"Education in the USA" и знакомства с амери-канскими
дневниками. Она возникла как-то робко и поначалу
казалась фантастически-несбыточной. Мы подумали:
а что если создать Дневник на английском языке
для ученика нашей школы? В нашей школе, где
английский язык изучается по углубленной
программе, наличие такого дневника было бы
Но как долог и непрост путь от идеи до результата….
После горячих обсуждений (brainstorming) мы решили, что наш Дневник должен координировать усилия школы, семьи и общественности для рациональной организации учебной деятельности ученика и формирования его личности. Он должен быть удобным в пользовании, содержательным, многофункциональным, не только отражать успехи ученика, но и использоваться как мини-справочник.
Работа над созданием Дневника велась на протяжении четырех месяцев по заранее составленному плану. Кроме изучения содержания разных дневников (российских и американских) пришлось познакомиться с рядом школьных документов, в том числе Уставом школы, Конституцией школы, решениями органов школьного самоуправления. Поисковая работа предполагала отбор необходимой информации о нашей Родине, регионе, городе, фактов из истории школы. Много сил и времени было потрачено на то, чтобы подобрать высказывания известных российских и зарубежных деятелей науки, литературы и искусства, которые мы решили поместить на рабочих страницах Дневника, преследуя воспитательные цели. Мы даже рискнули перевести Гимн Российской Федерации с русского языка на английский, а в результате конкурса среди участников проекта была сформулирована миссия нашей школы, и появилась новая эмблема, которая украсила обложку Дневника. Дизайн и компьютерная верстка были выполнены силами учащихся. Более того, мы создали две версии дневника - на английском и русском языках, что, конечно же, усложнило нашу работу, но зато добавило практики в двустороннем переводе.
Работа над проектом предоставила ребятам широкие возможности для совершенствования изучаемого языка: работа с адекватным материалом, обработка его в соответствии с поставленными задачами, неограниченные возможности, связанные с двусторонним переводом, применение ранее полученных знаний в реальной практической деятельности.
Участники проекта посвящают Дневник 45-летнему юбилею родной школы.
Ребята дважды выступили с защитой своего проекта. На общешкольной научно-практической конференции проект был признан "Лучшим школьным исследованием", а на X го-родской научно-практической конференции был удостоен Диплома I степени. Защита проходила на английском языке.
Предлагаем форму PRESENTATION.
Why did we decide to create a Student Handbook?
A student handbook is familiar to all of us and we all used it when studying at school.
Student handbooks are different: they can have a thick or a thin cover, they can be
black-and-white or with colourеd pictures. Besides, many handbooks differ by their
internal contents. Russian handbooks are all practically alike. We happened to come across
with some American handbooks, in many ways different from Russian ones. Here we can find
not only useful reference material and pages where students write down their homework
assignments, but also general requirements concerning discipline, attendance, dress code,
some advice concerning study strategies and many other things which can be really useful
and necessary for students.
So, an idea occurred to us, and we couldn't miss a chance of creating our own Student Handbook, basing on Russian and American handbooks, but doing it specially for the senior students of our school, as we came to the conclusion that none of the handbooks answers the purpose. Unlike standard Russian handbooks this Handbook contains a number of absolutely new sections.
We dedicate the Project to the 45-th anniversary of our school.
Project goals and tasks
We believe that a handbook should be multifunctional, informative, convenient and
attractive. To our mind, it should inform students and their parents of the school rules
and regulations, thus coordi-nating their activities, so that they could work jointly
making common cause. Besides, it is very important that our Handbook can serve a good
organizer and develop students' skills and habits, pre-paring them for lifelong learning.
We are sure that some essential information about our Motherland, our region and native
city - the place we live in -, some facts from the history of our school is absolutely
necessary in the handbook.
The embodiment of these ideas in the form of a 'Student Handbook of Secondary Comprehensive School Specializing in English № 27' required joint efforts of creative activities of fifteen students.
For the achievement of the produced goals we carried out the following tasks:
- Studied, compared and analyzed the information from different sources: Russian and American handbooks, Code of School № 27, Constitution of School № 27, some School Parliament documents, some information from the history of our school, city, region;
- Searched for quotations of famous Russian and foreign figures of science and culture;
- Translated a lot from Russian into English and vice versa;
- Carried out computer make-up and design.
- The Handbook can be used by the students of School №27 (English or Russian version);
- Teachers of English can find in the Student Handbook adequate materials on the topic 'School life', can practise students in bilateral translation and improve other language skills.
- Any educational institution can feel free to use the Student Handbook as an example for creating their own one.
- Creation of a bright colourful handbook satisfying the requirements of children of junior classes could be very attractive.
Contents of the Handbook
The Handbook includes the following sections:
1. Front Cover contains the heading, the full name of the educational institution, the school symbol, which was worked out by the creators of the project, and the years the Handbook is supposed to be used (2004/2005).
2. Forward. The forward gives recommendations for users of the Handbook.
3. Mission Statement of School № 27. It declares that our school aims its energies at the development of an up-to-date well-educated moral personality in partnership with families and the community.
4. Introductory Section contains the identification page, where a student should put down general in-formation about himself/herself (surname, first and second names, address, home telephone, etc.), the information about the school administration, teachers' roll. Besides, in the introductory section there is a timetable, a list of the holidays, distributed into the school terms, and calendars for 2004 and 2005.
5. Student Rights and Responsibilities. General Requirements. In this sections general rights and responsibilities of students of school № 27 and consequences in case of violating the requirements are provided ('Attendance requirements', 'Make up assignments/work', 'Excused and unexcused absence', 'Lateness to class', 'Early dismissals', 'Dress code requirements', 'Classroom procedures', 'Discipline, behavior' etc.) Students and their parents should pay special attention to this section to escape conflict situations at school or at home. The school policies relating to discipline are reasonable and intended to benefit order and safety in our school. The Student Handbook explains discipline guidelines. We consider this section the most important in the Hand-book, that's why so much space is given to it.
6. Our Motherland. The section includes historical, geographical and other information about Russia, Eastern Siberia, Lake Baikal, the city of Angarsk and School № 27. We are proud that A. Gutorov and M. Tsykun, the participants of the Project, managed to translate 'Hymn of Russian Federation' from Russian into English. It was not an easy matter.
7. Plan-It. The section is a good organizer. It is devoted to advice for students on setting goals, managing time, study strategies, writing tests and compositions. Also in this section a student can find the chart for identifying a career direction, recommendations on making a resume and behaving during the job interview.
8. Reference Materials contain some information concerning the school program in different school subjects (Algebra, Geometry, Geography, History, Chemistry and Astronomy) in the form of blocks. Here there are maps of the World and Russian Federation. Reference materials save students time greatly.
9. Work Pages should be used for putting down everyday home assignments and other important infor-mation. Besides, every spread includes quotations of famous Russian and foreign people of science and culture. The quotations are supposed to stimulate developing students' valuable human qualities. In the end of the section there is a Tapescript for students' final grades and space for summer recommendations. Here you can read all quotations used on work pages.
10. Directory is a section for noting addresses, telephone numbers, e-mails, necessary for a student.
11. Creators. The section contains some information about the authors of the Handbook and their photo.
12. Used Literature. The list proves that the authors of the Project have done a great job for the benefit of their School.
13. Back Cover includes the poem, devoted to school № 27, composed by A. Gutorov, and the photo of the English room of T. I. Gladysh, our supervising teacher.
What did the project work give to the authors?
According to the plan the project work lasted during four months.
It gave the participants great opportunities for enriching and improving their English:
- They had a chance to deal with adequate materials, working them up and adapting them to their tasks and goals.
- They carried out a lot of work connected with bilateral translation.
- They managed to put the knowledge gained before into real practical activities.
- They managed to create not only the English-language version of the Handbook but also the Russian one, so that a lot of children and adults could have a chance to get acquainted with their work.
- Project work made them feel satisfied with well done job.
This handbook is a result of the joint efforts of the 11A and 11B groups (2004
graduates) and T.I. Gladysh, their Teacher of English.
The handbook can help you develop effective habits and organizational skills that can serve you well throughout your life. The first section of the school handbook includes school rules and regulations. It is your responsibility to be familiar with them and share the information with your parents. There you can also find useful advice, some information about the place you live in and other important things. The second section is an organizer. Here you are provided with an opportunity to record homework assignments, out-of-class activities. There are special columns for your teachers to put down your marks, space for parents' and class-supervisor's signatures to control your progress. The book will also serve for promoting your self-discipline and enhancing education.
Mission Statement of School № 27
In partnership with families and the community our school:
- guides its energies at the development of an up-to-date well-educated moral personality that can make responsible decisions independently, foreseeing the possible consequences;
- moulds students' civic responsibility for the destiny of their Motherland, legal and tolerant self-consciousness, ability for co-operation and active adaptation to the labour market;
- provides a meaningful environment for motivating each student to achieve his/her highest potential, preparing him/her for lifelong learning and personal growth.
Student Rights and Responsibilities
1. All students are equal in their rights without distinction of any kind: parents'
nationality, religion, financial position and social status.
2. Every student has the right to express freely his own opinions and views and the right to be listened.
3. Every student has the right to acquire, through active participation, knowledge and practical skills.
4. Each student has the right to participate in different activities, attend school clubs and extra courses.
5. Every student has the right to present school in different events and occasions according to students' abilities and skills.
6. Each student has the right for the business surrounding in class:
Ш business-like co-operation with teachers
Ш teachers' attention, individual studies, if it is necessary
7. Each student has the right to have a comfortable working place.
8. Each student has the right to refuse the work, which is harmful for his/her health.
9. Each student has the right to request the amendment of the student's educational records that the parent or student believes are inaccurate or misleading. Parents can address the Principal, clearly identifying the part of the record they want to change and specifying why it is inaccurate.
Each student should:
1. fulfill the requirements of the School Code and decisions of Teachers' Council and follow the rules instituted by the School Parliament and School Constitution;
2. study hard in order to acquire knowledge and skills of self-education;
3. take part in social activities;
4. take care of best school traditions and develop them;
5. behave properly in and out of school;
6. know and observe strictly traffic rules, fire security and other safety measurements.
The school policies relating to discipline are reasonable and intended to benefit the safety of our school. The student handbook explains discipline guidelines. Please take the time to read the handbook and discuss the policies with your family.
General Attendance Requirements
Regular attendance shall be defined as attending school for the full day on each day,
during which the school is in session. Everyday attendance contributes to a student's
sense of responsibility, self-discipline and good work habits.
Regular attendance is essential, if students are to understand the continuity of the curriculum and derive the maximum benefit from education to reach their potential.
1. Personal illness.
2. Family circumstances.
4. Prearranged visit to social institutions (olympiads, contests, sport competitions, forums), discussed with the principal or the Head Teacher.
5. Emergencies (Administrative Approved).
1. Traffic trouble
2. Illegal employment
3. Parental neglect (visiting, overslept, undone homework, missed bus, etc.)
Upon your return to school after an absence a written excuse must be brought from home, explaining the reason for your absence. Excuses for absence should be taken to the Head Teacher or a person, responsible for attendance.
Absences must be properly excused in the accordance with the school Attendance Rules.
School policy may require a medical excuse for any questionable absence or for 3 or more consecutive days out of absence. The school will make a reasonable attempt to contact parents of the students absent from school.
Make Up Assignments / Work
Students with unexcused absence will be allowed to make up any work missed, to take tests, which were missed, and to submit any assignments, which became due during the absence. The responsibility for arranging make-up work and turning in assignments rests with the student.
Lateness to School
A student who arrives to school later than 8.00 a.m. will report to his Room Teacher and remain in class. Lateness will be recorded in the Class Journal. Additional latenesses will result in review by the administration with the appropriate disciplinary action.
Early dismissal will be granted under certain circumstances. When requesting an early
dismissal, a written request must be presented to the Assistant Principal or the Head
Teacher by 8.00 a.m. on the day of the request.
All such requests must bear the signature of the parent or guardian and the telephone number where the parent or the guardian may be reached.
Students may not leave school without prior approval of the Assistant Principal or the Head Teacher.
1. Students are to go directly to their assigned seats upon entering the classroom.
2. Students will remain in their seats and at work until dismissed by the teacher.
3. Students are to give prompt obedience to any order or request given by the teacher.
4. Respect and good manners are to be shown to all teachers all the time.
5. Students are not to mark up desks or walls or other parts of the building and equipment.
6. Students are liable for any damages for which they are responsible.
7. No personal grooming in class is allowed (i.e. combing hair, using make-up, spraying hair, etc.)
Violation of any of the points above may result in disciplinary actions
A student shall be subject to suspension for any conduct or behavior, which disrupts, hinders, or threatens the proper and orderly functioning of any school activity including classroom, extra-curricular, and athletic activities.
1. Class Cutting. It is a serious matter and disciplinary penalties will be handled through parent contact and in-school and out-of-school suspension.
2. Drugs / Alcohol. The possession, use, selling, or transferring of alcohol, drugs, or any illegal substance is strictly forbidden in school, at school activities, on school property. Penalty: suspension notification of police and a recommendation for expulsion.
3. Smoking. A student may not possess, use, dispense, or sell tobacco products while in school buildings, school grounds, or school buses.
4. Fighting. It is unacceptable behavior and has no place in school. Because of the potential for serious injury and disruption, fighting is dealt with severely. Students must make every effort to avoid involvement in a fight or they will have to suffer the penalties, up to an optional recommendation for expulsion.
5. Telephone use. A public telephone is located in the school lobby and may be used by students to make personal calls. The use of sell phones and pagers (beepers) during class are prohibited.
6. Harassment. Swearing or suggestive language is inappropriate at all the times. Actions, remarks (spoken or written) that defame the dignity or self-esteem of individuals or groups and create intimidating, hostile, or offensive feelings, including those of sexual nature, are not tolerated in school. Penalty - as designated in the Student Code of Conduct.
7. Weapons. Students may not possess or conceal articles commonly used or designated to inflict bodily harm or to intimidate other persons, or to use in an aggressive manner articles designated for other purposes.
8. Entertainment. Possession of playing cards or other games of chance is not permitted.
9. Fire Alarms (drills). Fire drills are required by law. At the sounding of the fire bells (three consistent bells) students proceed to the fire exits. Be quiet and orderly upon reaching the outside of the building. Students should move to the assigned positions away from the building. When returning to the building, students should move quickly and in an orderly manner of state law. Students are prohibited by State law from tampering with the fire alarm. Any student apprehended for pulling a false fire alarm will be prosecuted to the fullest extent.
10. Academic Cheating means the attempt to obtain knowledge, information, or
material from another person or source of information, and to submit such work as the work
product of the student; for example, giving or receiving aid during a testing period,
lending one's own work, or acquiring the work of another for the purpose of submitting all
or a part thereof as the work product of the student.
Penalties: student will receive a grade penalty and/or disciplinary action according to the School Code of Conduct.
11. Special student functions
All student and class activities not provided for in regular classes must be arranged in advance with the principal.
- Generally, evening events will be scheduled on Friday or on Saturday nights.
- A teacher must be present at all times when students are decorating or cleaning up any part of the school facilities for dances, rehearsals, or other school events.
- After a school function, all decorations must be removed, and the part of the building used must be left in good order.
- Students may not be excused from classes to assist in the preparation for social functions or other school events.
- Students who are planning to participate in school functions are expected to be in school during the session preceding the function.
12. Visitors. No guests or visitors, except those on school business or prearranged student exchange, will be permitted during school hours. For safety reasons, younger brothers or sisters are not permitted to visit the school.
Reminder: for all misconducts students will take moral or economic responsibility!
Dress Code Requirements
1. Students may dress or wear hair in any fashions, which suits their individual taste, provided such style within reasonable limits of decency, and propriety.
2. All garments should be clean and free of holes. Standard of personal hygiene must be maintained.
3. It is prohibited to wear:
- C'lothing which displays slogans and pictures, which are suggestive of the use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, or illegal behavior or contain obscene language.
- revealing tops, transparent clothing.
- hats, caps, or distracting head wear.
4. Sport uniform is supposed to be worn only at Physical Education classes.
5. No one may dress in any manner, which interrupts the educational program.
6. For special events like field trips, dances, commencement, etc., special dress may be prescribed.
Consequences for students violating the above dress code provisions:
Violators of the dress code will be referred to the Principal and the incident shall be treated as a disciplinary violation. Students will be reinstated to class when the inadmissible clothing is replaced with appropriate one.
The administration reserves the right to make modifications to this dress code with School Board approval.
The information contained in the Student Handbook is based upon the guidelines provided in the:
1. Class Self-government Regulations.
2. Fargo Public High School Student Handbook, Premier, a School Speciality Company, printed in the USA, 2003.
3. Happy Birthday. Compiled by Laurence L. Beilenson. - New York, Peter Pauper Press Inc. White Plains, 1995.
4. John-Roger and Peter McWilliams. The Portable Do It! - Los Angeles, Prelude Press, 1993.
5. Littlestown Senior High School Handbook, Premier, a School Speciality Company, printed in the USA, 2003.
6. Monroe Area Comprehensive High School, Premier, a School Speciality Company, printed in the USA, 2003.
7. Pine Forest High School Student Handbook, Premier, a School Speciality Company, printed in the USA, 2003.
8. G. Ridless. Little Treasures. - New York, Peter Pauper Press Inc. White Plains, 1991.
9. School Code of the municipal Educational Institution "Comprehensive Secondary School specializing in English № 27".
10. School № 27 Constitution.
11. Student Code of Conduct, School № 27.
12. The history of School № 27.
13. The history of Angarsk.
14. The Russian School Handbook for students of 5-11 grades, Publishing House "The Rhyme", Smolensk, 2000.
15. The Russian School Handbook, Publishing House "The Rhyme", Smolensk, 2000.
16. A.M. Savchenko. Cultural Education by Means of a Foreign Language. - Irkutsk, 2002.
17. William Penn High School Student Handbook/Planner 1997-98, Select Agendas, printed in Canada, 1997.
1. A label is easy to stick on, but takes some effort to remove.
2. You can't judge a book by its cover, but you can tell a lot by the first page.
3. Never forget to do the impossible while reaching the possible. (A. Rubinstein)
4. Once you stop acting like something you become something.
5. Good thoughts are worth of repeating. (M. Kalinin)
6. It's easy to jump off the merry-go-round. It's harder to stay on and not get dizzy.
7. Study and read. Read books that are serious. Life will do the rest. (F. Dostoyevsky)
8. Perfect balance is getting everything you want out of life without compromising any of your convictions.
9. Never, under no circumstances, think the world of yourself or swagger. (A. Chekhov)
10. Don't teach - don't preach - don't try to reach. Just seek and all will come to you.
11. Many people prefer joking to thinking. (M. Gorky)
12. Fame does not make one an authority.
13. The wealth of language is the wealth of thoughts. (N. Karamzin)
14. We all lie. The only difference is how we disguise it to ourselves or to others.
15. The book is the greatest thing while the person knows how to use it. (A. Block)
16. If we were all brought up to think about the next generation, this one would be just fine.
17. The one who doesn't respect oneself will definitely not be respected by others. (N. Karamzin)
18. Ever notice that people who say "don't follow me" have thousands of people following them?
19. Define the way of life even when it seems unbearable to live. Make your life useful. (N. Ostrovsky)
20. If I could find just one square inch on earth where I didn't have to answer to anyone, I would call that Freedom.
21. Only a deep and kind soul can laugh kindly and heartily. (N. Gogol)
22. There are no new thoughts - just new ways to say them.
23. Simplicity is the main condition for moral beauty. (L. Tolstoy)
24. If I'm not responsible for the meaning of what I say - then who is?
25. Truth is an air we can't live without. (I. Turgenev)
26. Obsession is 99% of accomplishing any goal. 1% is luck.
27. In human ignorance it is more comforting to consider all that you don't know as nonsense. (D. Fonvizin)
28. If we can imagine it, it can come true. So I suggest we be careful about what we imagine.
29. Never listen to those who speak ill of others and well of you. (L. Tolstoy)
30. Like money in the bank, patience breeds interest.
31. A man doesn't die if he is inspired by a common idea and serves a common aim. (D. Mamin-Sibiryak)
32. The most difficult action in the world is to listen.
33. Reading is the best study. To follow the thoughts of distinguished people is an extremely exciting experience. (A. Pushkin)
34. Life is a struggle for those who want more than life itself.
35. There is nothing more tiresome than a dull mind. (I. Turgenev)
36. There is quite a difference between knowing and understanding.
37. A thought! A great thing! This is what the greatness of a man implies. (A. Pushkin)
38. We are always acting, even when we are alone.
39. Where there is lack of exact knowledge, there is mere guess-work, but from ten attempts nine are wrong. (M. Gorky)
40. It's impossible to judge someone without judging yourself.
41. How narrow are the limits of human sincerity and how firm they are secured by self-esteem. (M. Gorky)
42. Perfection is the ugliest thing in the world.
43. To lie to yourself is the most widespread and lowest form of human slavery by his own life. (L. Andreev)
44. Every day is a chance to breathe.
45. Most of all I'm ashamed of lie that is always the result of weakness and cowardness. (A. Kuprin)
46. An option is nothing more than two doors that are halfway open.
47. When all Don-Quixotes are gone, let the History Book go into the past. There will be nothing to read in it. (I. Turgenev)
48. If we are all completely unique, how can someone be better than another?
49. Neither an emperor nor a slave does friendship need. It is based on equality. (I. Goncharov)
50. The surest way to spread a message is to ask someone to keep it a secret.
51. It's better to have a bare-faced enemy than a flatterer and hypocrite who shames the humanity. (Peter I)
52. Without a clock time becomes infinite.
53. Persistently follow the rule: words should be packed, for thoughts - plenty of room. (N. Nekrasov)
54. Not everything needs an explanation.
55. A fool who confesses that he (she) is a fool is a progressing person. (F. Dostoyevsky)
56. An objective view can be a great communication bridge.
57. Anyone who wants to develop a will must learn to overcome obstacles. (I. Pavlov)
58. Properly, we should read for power. Man reading should be man intensely alive. The book should be a ball of light in one's hand. (Ezra Pound)
59. An optimist is not the one who never suffered but one who experienced the despair and overcame it. (A. Skryabin)
60. Regret for the things we did can be tempered by time; it is regret for the things we did not do, that is inconsolable. (Sydney J. Harris)
61. A real strength is not in temper but in an unshakable calmness. (L. Tolstoy)
62. Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up. (Thomas Edison)
63. They are cowards who talk more about courage and scoundrels - about generosity. (A. Tolstoy)
64. Success is simply a matter of luck. Ask any failure. (Earl Wilson)
65. It's even pleasant to be ill when you know that there are people waiting for your recovery as a holiday. (A. Chekhov)
66. There is no cure for birth and death, save to enjoy the interval. (George Santayana)
67. The beauty lies not in particular traits and lines but in a general face expression, in a life sense that this face displays. (N. Dobrolyubov)
68. Rule for Happiness: something to do, someone to love, something to hope for. (Immanuel Kant)
69. The humanity progresses only if it makes its best dreams true. (K. Timiryazev)
70. Even, if I knew certainly the world would end tomorrow, I would plant an apple tree today. (Martin Luther)
71. It is a bad omen when one stops understanding irony, allegory or a joke. (F. Dostoyevsky)
72. If silence is golden, how come everyone asks for jewelry? (Anonymous)
73. You may dispute only with a person who you don't agree with but at the same time clearly understand. (V. Belinsky)
74. Take care of the minutes, and the hours will take care of themselves (Lord Chesterfield).
75. There is nothing more encouraging idleness than trifling conversations. (L. Tolstoy)
76. Happiness is perfume: you can't pour it on somebody else without getting a few drops on yourself (J. Van Der Zee).
77. Polemic is an extremely convenient way for clarifying a thought. (F. Dostoyevsky)
78. We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves to be like other people (A. Schopenhauer).
79. There is no happiness in idleness. (F. Dostoyevsky)